Chiller plant operation maintenance pdf

Chillers are a key component of air conditioning systems for large buildings. They produce cold water to remove heat from the air in the building. They also provide cooling for process loads such as file-server rooms and large medical imaging equipment. Chillers are complex machines that are expensive to purchase and operate.

Chillers commonly use more energy than any other piece of equipment in large buildings. Maintaining them well and operating them smartly can yield significant energy savings. The evaporator is the low-temperature cooling side of the system and the condenser is the high-temperature heat-rejection side of the system. Mechanical compression chillers are classified by compressor type: reciprocating, rotary screw, centrifugal and frictionless centrifugal. The hot gas is discharged to the condenser instead of being exhausted out a tailpipe.

The pistons have intake and exhaust valves that can be opened on demand to allow the piston to idle, which reduces the chiller capacity as the demand for chilled water is reduced. This unloading allows a single compressor to provide a range of capacities to better match the system load. This is more efficient than using a hot-gas bypass to provide the same capacity variation with all pistons working. Some units use both methods, unloading pistons to a minimum number, then using hot-gas bypass to further reduce capacity stably.

As the helical rotors rotate, the gas is compressed by direct volume reduction between the two rotors.

HVAC - Multistack Chiller - Pumps - Preventive Maintenance

Capacities range from 20 to tons. Centrifugal chillers provide high cooling capacity with a compact design. They can be equipped with both inlet vanes and variable-speed drives to regulate control chilled water capacity control. Capacities are tons and up.

The compressor requires no lubricant and has a variable-speed DC motor with direct-drive for the centrifugal compressor. Capacities range from 60 to tons.

Absorption chillers use a heat source such as natural gas or district steam to create a refrigeration cycle that does not use mechanical compression. Because there are few absorption machines in the Northwest U. Chillers produce chilled water in the evaporator where cold refrigerant flows over the evaporator tube bundle. The refrigerant evaporates changes into vapor as the heat is transferred from the water to the refrigerant.

The chilled water is then pumped, via the chilled-water distribution system to the building's air-handling units.Taking regular readings, however, allows them to watch for trends, possibly catching problems before they result in equipment damage and unexpected downtime. This article provides an overview of regular chiller maintenance pointers provided by Carpenter and Carrier technical literature.

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Know your water quality. This is where taking daily measurements and tracking them over time really pays off. The first step is to inspect the heat exchanger tubes and flow devices.

Look for signs of corrosion and scale.

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The presence of scale or other corrosion may require chemical treatment or cleaning beyond just brushing the tubes. Inspect the entering and leaving condenser water sensors and flow devices for signs of corrosion or scale. Again, replace the sensor or Schrader fitting if corroded; remove any scale.

Too much refrigerant in the unit can cause refrigerant carryover, a condition where liquid refrigerant enters the compressor and evaporates. This could lead to reduced capacity, an overloaded motor condition, excess power consumption, and possible damage to the compressor impeller.

On the other hand, Carpenter pointed out, insufficient refrigerant charge can result in the top or uppermost layers of the cooler tube bundle not being submerged in liquid refrigerant.

In undercharged units, add refrigerant to minimize power consumption. Carrier recommends that service contractors trim the refrigerant charge to obtain optimal chiller performance. Do not overcharge.

And because the mechanical and electrical components were designed to work together, servicing your system in its entirety is the only way to ensure optimal performance and prevent serious problems. Trend reports can give you a complete picture of your chiller plant or entire building HVAC system. Armed with reliable information, specialists can suggest and make improvements that will enhance system operation and reduce operating costs.

During this part, it is less critical that proper safety procedures be followed. Open all internal and remote disconnects before servicing the starter. Never open isolating knife switches while equipment is operating.

Electrical arcing can cause serious injury. Look for wear or pitting on mechanical-type starters. Vacuum or blow off accumulated debris on the internal parts periodically with a high-velocity, low-pressure blower.

Turn the power off and retighten them. That determines the frequency of future oil changes, and may alert you to other problems in the system that can be addressed during planned maintenance rather than emergency downtime. The lubrication system should be checked every week, the company says.

If more oil is required, add it through the oil drain charging valve.JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser.

Stationary Air Cooled Chillers. Portable Air Cooled Chillers. Central Air Cooled Chillers. Portable Water Cooled Chillers. Central Water Cooled Chillers. Medical Chillers. Food Processing Chillers.

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Many industrial processes generate significant quantities of heat which must be dissipated as quickly as possible to prevent damage to sensitive equipment as well as prevent defects in the quality of finished products. Industrial chillers are heat exchange machines which exert a cooling effect that helps to rid a process or machine of unwanted heat.

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An industrial chiller can be a significant purchase, so it is vital to understand how to maintain it to keep it operational for as long as possible.

Depending on the chiller types you are considering, the key features of this list may vary slightly. As basic as this may seem, having a daily record of operating conditions, the pressure and temperatures in the chiller unit, as well as the fluid levels and flow rate, could help quickly predict the likelihood of future damage to the chiller machine. Keeping a chiller log sheet is advantageous as a pre-emptive chiller maintenance schedule can be structured before the onset of actual damages.

The industrial chiller working principle is reliant on heat transfer to exert a cooling effect. In shell and tube and brazed plate heat exchangers, an obstruction to the flow of cooling fluid through condenser tubes will significantly diminish how efficiently a chiller transfers heat. Over time, corrosion can accumulate inside the chiller tubing and impede the removal of generated heat. Therefore, it is necessary that regular quarterly or at least yearly cleaning of chiller tubes is scheduled and carried out.

Reducing the temperature of the water entering the condenser of an industrial chiller, significantly improves efficiency as it has to work less to exert its overall cooling effect. Although all units Cold Shot Chillers manufactures are closed-loop chillers, some chiller condensers have water loops which utilize open cooling sources such as air-cooling towers.

As a result of this environmental exposure, there is a tendency for the water to become contaminated with biological growths, corrosion, and scale which could affect overall heat transfer and chiller efficiency.

Chilled water loops should be inspected at least yearly and treated to remove contaminants.Industrial water chillers are used in a variety of applications where chilled water or liquid are circulated through process equipment. Commonly used to cool products and machinery, water chillers are used in a multitude of different applications including injection moldingtool and die cutting, food and beveragechemicals, lasers, machine tool, semi-conductors and more.

The function of an industrial chiller is to move heat from one location usually process equipment or product to another place usually the air outside the manufacturing facility. Regardless of your industry and process, making sure that you have sufficient cooling is critical to productivity and cost savings. This cool fluid removes heat from the process and the warm fluid returns to the chiller.

The process water is the means by which heat transfers from the process to the chiller. Process chillers contain a chemical compound, called a refrigerant. There are many types of refrigerant and applications depending on the temperatures required but they all work on the basic principle of compression and phase-change of the refrigerant from a liquid to a gas and back to a liquid.

This process of heating and cooling the refrigerant and changing it from a gas to a liquid and back again is the refrigeration cycle. The low-pressure gas enters the compressor where it is compressed to high-pressure gas. The high-pressure gas enters the condenser where ambient air or condenser water removes heat to cool it to a high-pressure liquid. The high-pressure liquid travels to the expansion valve, which controls how much liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator, thereby beginning the refrigeration cycle again.

There are two types of condensers used in chillers; air-cooled and water-cooled. An air-cooled condenser uses ambient air to cool and condense the hot refrigerant gas back down to a liquid. It can be located inside the chiller or can be remotely located outside, but ultimately it rejects the heat from the chiller to the air. In a water-cooled condenser, water from a cooling tower cools and condenses the refrigerant.

Chiller systems range vastly in size and design and are available as small, localized or portable chiller units for smaller applications or large central chillers designed to provide cooling for entire processes.

If you are interested in more details on the best cooling solution for your application please contact a Thermal Care specialist. Please read the message from our President. How Does A Chiller Work?

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What is a Chiller? Continue Your Chiller Research.Chiller types and application guide. Scroll to the bottom of the article to watch the video tutorial. Their products include compressors, AC drives, system protectors, heat exchangers, valves, electronics, and sensors.

Learn more at Chiller. Just to recap on your previous knowledge of chillers. Chillers are simply machines used to generate cold or chilled water which is distributed around buildings to provide air conditioning.

As you can imagine there are a lot of different types of chillers and they are categorised by types, so its important you understand what the names mean, the differences between them and when and where they are used as well as why.

The first way to categorise a chiller is by defining whether it is a vapor compression or vapor absorption type chiller. Vapour compression chillers use an electrically driven mechanical compressor to force a refrigerant around the system.

chiller plant operation maintenance pdf

These are the most common types of chillers. Vapor absorption chillers will use a heat source to move the refrigerant around the system rather than using a mechanical compressor. The refrigerant in these chillers move around between areas of different temperature and pressure.

Click here to watch the video tutorial on these chillers. Looking at vapor compression chillers, the two main types are air cooled and water cooled. Both types of chillers have the same essential components which are, the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the expansion valve. When we talk about air cooled or water cooled this simply refers to the way in which the unwanted heat is ejected from the building via the chillers condenser.

The working principle for both air cooled and water cooled chillers is the same. A compressor pushes a refrigerant round the inside of the chiller between the condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and back to the compressor. The only difference is that with an air cooled chiller, fans force air across the exposed tubes of the condenser which carry the heat away. Water cooled chillers have a sealed condenser and water is pumped through to take the heat away and disperse this through the cooling tower.

The cooling tower will also use a fan to reject the heat. Watch the video tutorial on how cooling towers work here. Large buildings with cooling loads in excess of tons of refrigeration or 1, kW typically use water cooled chillers with either centrifugal compressors or Turbocor compressors within the central plant cooling system. They might also use a separate smaller air cooled chiller to handle the critical cooling loads such as computer and communication rooms.

There might also be an absorption chiller within the central plant system, making use of waste heat, for example from a CHP engine, but these are mostly used alongside mechanical chillers.Select the following link if you would like to recover a report that has been previously deleted.

It is imperative that your water-cooling system s operates at maximum efficiency. The chiller is the heart of the refrigeration system which operates best with skilled technicians maintaining it. Gain hands-on practice and knowledge of instruments and test meters. Become familiar with approach temperature and to interpret it in terms of the system operation. If you have shopped with us before, please enter your details in the boxes below. You will be redirected to this page after a successful login.

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HVAC Chillers Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manuals - PDF

NTT Inc. At the end of this training program attendees will be able to: Utilize HVAC concepts as they apply to air conditioning, refrigeration, heating, chillers, boilers, and pneumatic comfort controls Perform HVAC operation, preventative maintenance, and troubleshooting.

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Chiller Types And Application Guide

Request More Info Now. Topics covered during this training include: Types, design and operation of chillers Thermodynamics and heat transfer Condensers water-cooled and air-cooled operation and maintenance Compression and absorption theory Cooling towers —design operation Refrigeration prime movers and compressors Glycol anti-freeze systems Thermal storage systems Preventive maintenance and troubleshooting Upon request, we offer freeA EPA and Test of Excellence testing at the end of this class.

By clicking the checkbox below, you certify that San JoseCA. CentennialCO. MinneapolisMN.With our team of expert chiller maintenance engineers and state of the art equipment- Maximus Chillers completes the picture. We know that poorly maintained chillers cost more in electricity to run.

In the age of environmental concerns and energy efficiency- keeping your plant in the best condition makes a real difference. We provide full over the phone support, so that in between visits we can help keep your plant running as it should. We send out technical bulletins in PDF form, so our customers can read about the latest measures in maintaining their plant. We provide onsite training to your staff so they can resolve some of the issues themselves without the added cost of a call out.

chiller plant operation maintenance pdf

Our reputation precedes us: smart, knowledgeable engineers attend site and provide a service that is second to none. A lot of issues can be resolved, just as a result of the capability of our engineers. We make system adjustments to improve on reliability and efficiency.

chiller plant operation maintenance pdf

Each engineer has a full complement of commonly used parts and materials in their car. We don't put all materials through the books- it's all the part of the job. Weather you have an office building, facility or a factory you can feel safe in the knowledge that Maximus Chillers will provide the best service available. Read more in our Testimonials about what our customers think of us. All of our engineers are in their comfort zone when maintaining your chillers.

We are seasoned in optimizing efficiency and prolonging the life of your plant. Maximus is Latin for the highest and the greatest, so we provide nothing less than the highest and the greatest customer support and technical capability. Achieve optimum operational performance and energy efficiency with regular chiller maintenance from our highly trained engineers.

Chiller struggling to achieve set point? Showing error messages? Maximus Chillers can help! O ur engineers carry an extensive range of commonly used parts. Our fast supply chain offers same day delivery of most specialist parts and materials.

Our technician will carry out a detailed chiller maintenance tick sheet.

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If any issues are identified, a complete controls, component and refrigerant diagnosis will be carried out. Maximus Chillers offer specialist chiller maintenance- national and global.

Our visits will save you money. With regular planned, preventative maintenance PPM, our engineers will get your plant running better than when it came out of the factory!

Starting with the asset list usually provided by the end user we put together a schedule.

chiller plant operation maintenance pdf

This details the work we will carry out and how often. We are trained and certificated in live electrical testing end electrical fault finding. Risk assessment method statement is used to control the risks.


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